Kozhikode also known as koyil kotta, kalikat, kalifo and Calicut was a prominent port in sangam era and chera era. The city of Kozhikode came into existence sometime in the 13th century ad. the ruler was known as Swami nambiyathiri thirumulpad or Samoothiri. The Eurpopeans called him Zamorin. in 1498 Portuguese explorer Vasco da gama landed at Kappad about 15 km from Calicut city, and the Portuguese then dominated trade for a century till in 1604 the Zamorin sided with the dutch. in 1766 Hyder ali of Mysore captured Kozhikode and much of the northern Malabar coast. he lost Kozhikode and the surrounding districts to the British after the third Anglo Mysore war in 1792. The newly acquired possessions on the Malabar coast were organized into the Malabar district of madras presidency and Calicut became the district capital. Malabar district was combined with the state of Travancore Cochin to form the new state of Kerala on 1 November 1956. Malabar district was split into the districts of Kannur, Kozhikode and Malappuram districts subsequently.
GEOGRAPHY– Kozhikode is located at 11°15′n 75°46′e / 11.25°n 75.77°e. it has an average elevation of 1 metre (3 feet). there are a number of rivers and lakes in the district. chaliyarpuzha, kallayipuzha, korapuzha, ponoorpuzha and iravanjhi puzha are some among them.
CLIMATE – the district has a generally humid climate with a very hot season extending from march to may. the main rainy season is during the monsoons. the average annual rainfall is 3,266 mm. The best weather is found towards the end of the year, in December and January.
DISTANCES:-. Mangalore – 249 kms driving time 5 1/2 hrs. Bangalore – 342 kms driving time 8 hrs. Coimbatore – 186 kms driving time 5 hrs. Cochin – 176 kms driving time 5 hrs. Thiruvanathapuram – 382 kms driving time 9 hrs
DEMOGRAPHY – Kozhikode is one of the main commercial cities of Kerala. the economy is mainly business oriented. a large proportion of the male population are employed in the gulf countries and their remittances home are an important part of the local economy. Kozhikode has been a multi ethnic and multi-religious town since the early medieval period, as it was an important trading port in the Indian ocean. Hindus form the largest community, followed by Muslims and Christians respectively. Kozhikode had a population of 436,530(needs checking) . sex ratio males constitute 49% of the population and females 51%. Kozhikode has an average literacy rate of 92.24%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 96.11% and female literacy is 88.62%. in Kozhikode, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age.
ESSENTIAL DATA . Taluks – 3 , blocks – 12 , Panchayats-77, villages-117, municipalities- 2, corporation-1, district area 3,061 sq.km, city area 30.61 sq.km, city population 419531, district population 2613683, total forest land 41386 hectare.
this temple is dedicated to goddess bhagavathy. The special attraction of this temple is the elephant procession during the festival season (march/april).
This temple is 12 km away from Kozhikode. the exquisitely carved gajaprathista styled laterite structure is more than two centuries old. it is believed that sree parashuraman starts his siva linga prathista at tiruvannur and completes it here every noon. the noon pujas here are therefore considered very special.
The sree krishna temple at karatt and the shiva temple at ponmeri have flamboyant paintings depicting palazhimathanam (the story of the churning of the ocean of milk) from the puranas.
The two temples in this compound at trikkovil lane have exquisitely painted interiors and elaborately carved porticoes.
PARSI ANJU AMMAN BAUG:
It is a fire temple on s m street dates back to the period when the parsis, settled in Kozhikode about 200 years ago.
CULTURE– in the field of Malayalam language and literature, Kozhikode has made many significant contributions. the district is famous for folk songs or ballads known as vaddakan pattukal. one of the favorite past times of the Muslims of the district is singing mappila pattu and oppana. The songs are composed in a composite language of Arabic and Malayalam. the famous intellectual debate for vedic scholars to win the coveted position of pattathanam takes place at thali temple during the month of oct/ nov. Kozhikode also has strong associations with gazals and football. The city has a strong mercantile streak to it. the main area of business was once ‘valiyangadi’ (big bazaar) near the railway station. as time progressed, it shifted to other parts of the city. These days, the commercial heart has moved to mittai theruvu (sweet meat street), a long street crammed with shops that sell everything from ready made textiles to cosmetics. it also houses restaurants and sweetmeat shops. The name mittai theruvu or s.m. street comes from the famous Kozhikode halwa which was often called sweet meat. the multicultural mix of Kozhikode ensures that onam christmas and id-ul-fitr(the festivals of the Hindus, Christians, and Muslims respectively) are celebrated with equal pomp.
EDUCATION– The beginning of western education may be traced back to the first half of the 19th century, when in 1848 the basal evangelical mission started primary school at Kallai. in 1877, a school for the young rajas was started in Kozhikode. this was later thrown open to all caste hindu boys. in 1879, it was affiliated to the university of madras as a second grade college and with this, collegiate education in the district received a fillip. secondary education recorded an appreciable progress since 1915. the erstwhile Malabar district, of which the present Kozhikode district formed a part, holds a high rank among the districts of madras presidency in secondary education. according to the 2001 census, total literate and educated persons are placed at 2351548 with the break up as 11,82,906 males and 11,68,906 males and 11,68,642 females. The seat of the university of calicut is 23 kms. south of Kozhikode city at Tenhippalam in Malappuaram district. the university of Calicut was established in 1968. there are 14 arts and science colleges, of which eight colleges are under private management. of the ten professional colleges in the district one, ie, feroke training college, is run by private management. other professional colleges are the medical college, chevayur – Kozhikode, dental college – kozhikoe, nursing college – Kozhikode, regional engineering college – Chaathamangalam, government physical education college – east hill, Kozhikode, Government Homeo college – Kozhikode, government training college – Kozhikode, government law college – Kozhikode and evening law college – Kozhikode. the district has four polytechnics and three industrial training institutes. total number of schools in the district is 1239 consisting of 68 higher secondary schools, 5 teachers training institutes, 113 high schools, 327 upper primary schools and 723 lower primary schools. there are two central schools at Kozhikode and one navodaya school and two technical schools at Beypore and Koyilandy and 3 special schools. all villages are amply covered by basic educational institutions.
There are 11 government hospitals, 10 community health centres and 70 primary health centres in this district with a total bed strength of 4747. In addition to this, there is a government rural dispensary at NGO quarters Kozhikode, a district tb centre at Calicut, and two government fisheries dispensaries at Vadakara and Puthiyappa. Family planning services are available in all the hospitals and health centres. School health services have covered all the schools in the district. In the field of immunization services, the district has creditable achievements. Not a single case of confirmed polio has been reported here since 1993. The district will be declared as polio free shortly (testing).
To take up public awareness programs on health, a mass media wing is functioning under the district medical officer of health. There are 205 units of Mahila swasthya sangh in this district to promote women’s participation to solve their health problems particularly related to meternal, child health and family planning. To promote non governmental sector in family welfare programs, standing committee of voluntary action units (scova) are also functioning here.
The district blindness control society is effectively functioning in Kozhikode district. Thousands of cataract operations and intra ocular lens implantations were being done. To improve the health status of coastal people, coastal health project was also introduced.
The district has a regional filaria training & research centre and a regional analytical laboratory.
A cancer control society is functioning under the district medical officer of health at Kozhikode to detect the cancer cases.
There are 7 Ayurvedic hospitals – each at Vadakara, Payyoli, Kozhikode, Cheruvannur, Balusseri, Thalayad and Nochad with a total bed strength of 200. The district has 52 Ayurvedic dispensaries and 4 grant-in-aid dispensaries. There are 45 Homeo dispensaries and 3 Homeo hospitals with a total bed strength of 75. The total bed strength of Homeo medical college is 100. There is a co-operative hospital in the city. This hospital has 125 bed strength.
The Kozhikode municipal corporation runs 7 allopathic and 2 Ayurvedic dispensaries
Kozhikode district has a rich heritage in agriculture as it was a port city famous for pepper & species trade. Agriculture plays a major role in the district economy. The total geographical area of the district is 2,33,330 hectares in which the net area sown is 1,63,932 hectares. The crops like coconut, paddy, banana, tubers and other spices and tree crops are cultivated . The district receives an average rain fall of 3000 mm during the months from March to December. The major share of the showers received during the months from June to August is 2000 mm.
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